After decades of experimentation, billions of dollars in investment worldwide and uncertainty about success, researchers have nevertheless proven that a quantum computer can work more efficiently than traditional computers. Previously, Google published an article in the scientific journal Nature, in which she reported the development of a revolutionary model of computation and the achievement of quantum supremacy.
First of all, quantum computers can render widely used encryption codes obsolete, which stimulates some financial organizations and institutions to develop new types of security algorithms. In addition, the technology will help to solve a lot of business problems associated with the optimization of individual organizational processes and the entire activities of the company as a whole..
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The potential of these devices is so huge that in a matter of minutes it will make it possible to find answers to questions that are beyond the power of traditional methods of computing, or to solve problems that no one even knows about now..
For example, how to avoid wasting electricity as it passes through power lines, how to use nitrogen in the air to create fertilizers for plants, or determine which molecules need to be connected to get new vital drugs without wasting time and money for years of laboratory research without any guarantees of success.
All these problems are united by their complexity and the mysteries of the amazing interactions of the subatomic world. This is where the bizarre logic of quantum mechanics comes into play.
The weirdness of quantum computing
The fact is that in quantum mechanics the rules that we are used to and can observe around us, for example, the laws of physics described by Newton, do not work. In our world, objects are in a specific state, position and move in a specific direction. For classical calculations, this means that the basic unit of information (bit) can only be 0 or 1.
The strange rules of quantum mechanics allow elementary particles, such as electrons or photons, to not have a simple, definite state. That is, they can simultaneously be a wave field and matter, have an infinite number of possible positions at any given time, disappear without a trace from one place and immediately appear in another..
It is these features of particles that are used in quantum transistors, which are the main components of computing devices..
However, the Google team decided to go further and combine quantum mechanics with information technology. This allowed the researchers to get a combination that, instead of just pointing up or down (0 or 1), they said could map each point in any direction around the sphere. Such a multitasking system can simultaneously process much more information..
Being in entangled states, quantum bits (qubits) can interact with each other, which allows them to be combined to solve specific problems.
At the same time, unlike a classical computer, which methodically makes its way to an answer through two possible quantities, a quantum computer rushes chaotically in search of a suitable result until it reaches the goal. Therefore, in the course of this process, minor miscalculations and deviations can arise, which gradually accumulate and can lead to errors, which today is one of the main problems of technology. However, scientists are already developing methods to deal with errors..
Chances are, your next smartphone won’t use quantum computing, but over the next decade it could slowly permeate our daily lives..
The truth is, no one yet knows exactly how this technology will change the world. The effect can show up in new engineering approaches, unexpected chemical formulas, solutions to the problem of climate change or improvements in energy efficiency..
Researchers themselves cannot yet predict in which directions quantum computers will perform better than traditional ones, since they cannot foresee all possible aspects..
text: Ilya Bauer, photo: Unsplash, Tempting